Circulatory diseases

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)

Coronary Artery Disease (CAD) is caused by a buildup of plaque. This causes the arteries to narrow which limits blood flow to the heart. CAD can range from no symptoms, to chest pain, to a heart attack. Treatments may include lifestyle changes, medications, angioplasty and surgery.


Heart failure

Heart failure is a chronic condition in which the heart doesn't pump blood as well as it should. Symptoms include shortness of breath, fatigue, swollen legs and rapid heartbeat. Treatments can include eating less salt, limiting fluid intake and taking prescription medications. In some cases, a defibrillator or pacemaker may be implanted.



Hypertension is a condition where the force of blood against the artery walls is too high. Typically, hypertension is defined as blood  pressure above 130/80 and is considered to be severe if the pressure is above 180/120. High blood pressure often has no symptoms, but if left untreated could cause health conditions such as heart disease and stroke. A healthy diet, exercise and medication can help lower blood pressure.